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MLA 6th Edition Guide for References

The following are examples of citing print and electronic resources in the Modern Language Association (MLA) style. For complete explanations and more examples, see the MLA Handbook, shelved in the first floor reference area (call #PE1478.G52) or visit the organization's Web site. All section numbers below refer to the 6th edition (2003) of the MLA Handbook.

Note: A guide for the newer 7th edition is available. Use this guide ONLY if you are supposed to be using the 6th edition style. The 7th edition has significant changes.

Citing Print Resources

Book by a Single Author (MLA section 5.6.1)

Fukuyama, Francis. Our Posthuman Future: Consequences of the Biotechnology Revolution. New York: Farrar, 2002.

Book by More than One Author (5.6.4)

Hutcheon, Linda, and Michael Hutcheon. Bodily Charm: Living Opera. Lincoln: U of Nebraska P, 2000.

A Work in an Anthology (5.6.7)

More, Hannah. "The Black Slave Trade: A Poem." British Women Poets of the Romantic Era. Ed. Paula R. Feldman. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins UP, 1997. 472-82.

Article in a Reference Book (5.6.8)

"Ginsburg, Ruth Bader." Who's Who in America. 56th ed. 2002.

Article in a Journal with Continuous Paging (5.7.1)

Trumpener, Katie. "Memories Carved in Granite: Great War Memorials and Everyday Life." PMLA 115 (2000): 1096-103.

Newspaper Article (5.7.5)

Jeromack, Paul. "This Once, A David of the Art World Does Goliath a Favor." New York Times 13 July 2002, late ed.: B7+.

Article in a Magazine (5.7.6)

Fallows, James. "The Early-Decision Racket." Atlantic Monthly Sept. 2001: 37-52.

A Review (5.7.7)

Updike, John. "No Brakes." Rev. of Sinclair Lewis: Rebel from Main Street, by Richard Lingeman. New Yorker 4 Feb. 2002: 77-80.

A Published Interview (5.8.7)

Gordimer, Nadine. Interview. New York Times 10 Oct. 1991, late ed.: C25.

An Unpublished Interview (5.8.7)

Poussaint, Alvin F. Telephone interview. 10 Sept. 2004.

Citing Electronic Publications (section 5.9)

Documents in electronic format are cited similarly to print sources, but with additional access and electronic publication information. These citations can be quite complex and you are strongly advised to consult the MLA Handbook (starting at section 5.9) for explanations and details beyond the examples below.

Note that in most cases, the date just preceding the URL is the date you accessed the resource online.

An Entire Web Site (5.9.2)

Bartleby.com: Great Books Online. Ed. Steven van Leeuwen. 2002. 5 May 2002 <http://www.bartleby.com/>.

Personal Web Site (5.9.2.c)

Lancashire, Ian. Home page. 28 Mar. 2002. 15 May 2002 <http://www.chass.utoronto.ca:8080/~ian/>.

An Online Book (5.9.3)

Austen, Jane. Pride and Prejudice. Ed. Henry Churchyard. 1996. Jane Austen Information age. 6 Sept. 2002 <http://www.pemberley.com/janeinfo/pridprej.html>.

An Article in an Online Scholarly Journal (5.9.4.a)

Chan, Evans. "Postmodernism and Hong Kong Cinema." Postmodern Culture 10.3 (2000). Project Muse. 20 May 2002 <http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/pmc/v010/10.3chan.html>.

A Work in a Library Database (5.9.7.a)

Youakim, Sami. "Work-Related Asthma." American Family Physician 64 (2001): 1839-52. Health Reference Center. InfoTrac. Montana State U Libraries, Bozeman, MT. 12 Jan. 2007 <http://www.galegroup.com/>.

An Online Television or Radio Program (5.9.9.a)

Keillor, Garrison. A Prairie Home Companion. With Ledward Ka'apana and Owana Salazar. 12 Oct. 2002 Minnesota Public Radio. 18 Oct. 2002 <http://phc.mpr.org/ri/smil/021012.ram>.

An Online Film or Film Clip (5.9.9.c)

Murnau, F. W., dir. Nosferatu. 1922. The Sync. 16 June 2002 <http://www.thesync.com/ram/nosferatu.ram>.

In Text References for Print and Electronic Resources

For any type of source, you must include information within your text that directs readers to the correct entry in the works-cited list (see MLA Handbook 6.1). Web documents generally do not have fixed page numbers or any kind of section numbering. If your source lacks numbering, you have to omit numbers from your parenthetical references. If your source includes fixed page numbers or section numbering (such as numbering of paragraphs), cite the relevant numbers. Give the appropriate abbreviation before the numbers: "(Moulthrop, pars. 19-20)." (Pars. is the abbreviation for paragraphs. For common abbreviations, see MLA Handbook 7.1.) For a document printed off the Web, the page numbers of a printout should normally not be cited, because the pagination may vary in different printouts.

Rev. 3/10/08 (Zauha)