Creator: Cushman, Harriette Eliza, 1890-1978.

Provenance Note: The Harriette Cushman Extension Service Records incorporates accessions 75040, 78036, and 79013. Accession 75040 was donated to Special Collections in 1977 by Harriette Cushman.

Historical Note: Harriette Cushman was born in Birmingham, Alabama, on December 6, 1890. She grew up in New York, attended Mt. Holyoke College, and obtained her degree in chemistry and bacteriology from Cornell University in 1914. She later earned a special certificate in poultry husbandry from Rutgers. Cushman worked as a bio-chemist but eventually began to work in the poultry industry. She worked in Idaho and later at the University of California. In 1922, she accepted a position at Montana State College. She worked as Extension Poultry Specialist until 1955. Harriette Cushman was one of the first women in her field. She led the formation of Montana's cooperative turkey marketing pools, worked to spread poultry production in the Indian reservations, and helped upgrade state poultry flocks and improve egg marketing. Along with other awards and recognition, Cushman was given the honorary degree of Doctor of Agriculture from Montana State University in 1963. During her retirement, Harriette worked with 4H, the Montana Institute of the Arts, the Friends of the Library, the Museum of the Rockies, assisted Indian youth through Montana State University, and worked to benefit Montana's natural resources. She died in 1978.

Content Description Note: The Harriette Cushman Extension Service Records comprise a group of files from multiple accessions acquired over the course of several years.  The files in this collection traverse a spectrum of Cushman’s working activities ranging from her career as Extension Poultry Specialist to working with the Friends of the Montana State College Library to improvement of Native American education, as well as documenting the Montana Extension Service history.  Of interest is Cushman’s unpublished manuscript “Built for the Land:  A History of the Montana Extension Service” in series four, referenced by Merrill G. Burlingame for his text The Montana Cooperative Extension Service: a History.  The collection has been divided into seven series developed by Cushman to organize her work.  Each series has been categorized alphabetically then chronologically when appropriate.  When possible the folder titles provided by Cushman have been utilized and denoted by quotations (“ ”).

Related collections: Harriette Cushman's personal papers and correspondence, including an extensive set of family and personal photographs, have been arranged within Collection 1253, the Harriette Eliza Cushman Papers, 1893-1978.


Series 1 Correspondence
Series 2 Extension Service Administrative Records
Series 3 Extension Service Annual Reports
Series 4 Extension Service History
Series 5 Plains Indian Center
Series 6 Poultry Records
Series 7 Poultry Photographs

Series 1: Correspondence

Primarily business correspondence, the letters in this series were either written to Cushman or her predecessors in the extension service and the university. The letters relate primarily to Cushman's poultry work, extension activities, and work with the Friends of the Montana State College Library. Correspondents include Merrill G. Burlingame, Minnie Paugh, Leslie Heathcote, Frederic B. Linfield, M. L. Wilson, Carl H. Peterson, and Montana State Senator James Griffin. An index card file precedes the letters. These cards were kept by Cushman to track extension service inquiries by county of origin. The cards were completed with the name and address of the writer, the nature of the request, and the date. The actual inquiry letters were apparently discarded by Cushman after recording the information on the cards.

Box 1
1. Card File - Correspondents [by county]
Box 2
1. “Frederic B. Linfield,” 1898
2. “Frederic B. Linfield,” 1908
3. “Frederic B. Linfield,” 1910-1912
4. “Friends of the MSC Library,” 1952-1953
5. “Friends of the MSC Library,” 1961-1962
6. “Friends of the MSC Library,” 1963
7. “Friends of the MSC Library,” 1964-1966
8. “Harriette Cushman,” 1927
9. “Harriette Cushman,” 1932-1939
10. “Harriette Cushman,” 1940
11. “Harriette Cushman,” 1956
12. “Milburn L. Wilson,” 1913-1914
13. “Milburn L. Wilson,” 1915-1919
14. “Milburn L. Wilson,” 1922-1924
15. “Senator James Griffin,” 1916
16. “Senator James Griffin,” 1927

Contents | Special Collections

Series 2: Extension Service Administrative Records

Documents pertaining to the financial, contractual, and general faculty activities of Cushman during and after her tenure as Extension Poultry Specialist for Montana State College.

Box 2 (Cont.)
17. Cooperative extension service in agricultural & home economics; poultry account
18. Contracts, 1922-1951; Faculty record
19. Estimated Expenditures, 1901-1902 – Poultry Account
20. Farm family account book, 1941
21. Outstanding Alumni Award 1978 – Virginia Ferguson Dougherty
22. “People Partners” Grant 1975 – Geraldine Fenn

Contents | Special Collections

Series 3: Extension Service Annual Reports

Carbon copies and original typescripts for various weekly, annual and committee reports produced by Cushman's colleagues in the Extension Service. The reports cover a range of areas from agronomy to botany to farm management to land economics. Some reports contain photographs that pertain directly to the text have been retained to prevent the disruption of context. A few of these reports are duplicated in Accession 00021, the Montana State University Extension Service Records, 1912-1970.

Box 2 (Cont.)
23. Agronomist; Arthur J. Ogaard, 1922 Annual Report
24. Agronomist; Arthur J. Ogaard, 1923 Annual Report
25. Agronomist; Arthur J. Ogaard, 1924 Annual Report
26. Agronomist; Arthur J. Ogaard, 1925 Annual Report
27. Agronomist; Frank E. Fuller, 1919 Annual Report
28. Agronomist; F.E. Price, 1922 Annual Report
29. Agronomist; Floyd J. Chase, 1916 Annual Report
30. Annual conference; 1923 Project Committee Reports
31. Botanist; Harry M. Jennison, 1918 Annual Report
32. County Agent-Meagher & Wheatland; W.H. Fluhr, 1917 Annual Report

Box 3
1. County Agent-Rosebud; Home Demonstration Agents, 1926-1928 Monthly Reports
2. County Agent-Rosebud; Ralph D. Mercer, 1925-1928 Monthly Reports
3. Demonstration Farm Project; 1945-1946 Annual Summary
4. Emergency Demonstration; Samuel J. Hampton, 1918 Annual Report
5. Farm Management; A.J. Copeland, 1919 Annual Report
6. Farm Management; Edward H. Riley, 1921 Annual Report
7. Farm Management; Milburn L. Wilson, 1922 Annual Report
8. Farm Management; Milburn L. Wilson & Virgil D. Gilman, 1924 Annual Report
9. Farm Management; Virgil D. Gilman, 1925 Annual Report
10. Farm Management; Virgil D. Gilman, 1926 Annual Report [8 b/w prints]
11. Farm Management; William J. Hartman, 1920 Annual Report
12. Land Economics; H.G. Bolster, 1939 Annual Report
13. Land Economics; Robert B. Tootell, 1931 Annual Report
14. Land Economics; Robert B. Tootell, 1933 Annual Report [6 b/w prints]
15. Land Economics; Robert B. Tootell & H.G. Bolster, 1934 Annual Report

Contents | Special Collections

Series 4: Extension Service History

This series pertains to Cushman's writings on the history and development of the Montana Extension Service. Two unpublished manuscripts are present, (“Built for the Land: A History of the Montana Extension Service”) a general accounting of the extension service, and the second (“On State Request”) a more descriptive tale of Cushman’s relationship with the extension service. The series also includes her correspondence, notes, and research pertaining to her inquiries into this topic. Subjects range from dairy to 4H to sheep and cattle, as well as home demonstration, flood irrigation, agronomy, poultry, food and nutrition, etc. In compiling her notes and research, Cushman used questionnaires, in addition to corresponding with former colleagues such as Fred S. Cooley, William J. Hartman, Milburn L. Wilson, Ignatius D. O’Donnell, Arthur J. Ogaard, and Carl H. Peterson. Although some of her final work was partially used by Merrill G. Burlingame in his The Montana Cooperative Extension Service: a history, 1893-1974, neither of Cushman's manuscripts were ever published in their entirety.

Box 3 (Cont.)
16. “Built for the Land: A History of the Montana Extension Service – Draft”


Box 4
1. “Built for the Land: A History of the Montana Extension Service - First Carbon”
2. “Built for the Land: A History of the Montana Extension Service - Original Typescript”
3. “Child Care Programs”
4. Dairy Extension – John O. Tretsven, Frank Hillman, & Walter E. Thomson
5. “History of Sheep Industry in Montana”
6. “Home demonstration work”
7. “Howard Welch”
8. “J. Fred Toman” [1 b/w print]
9. “James M. Hamilton”
10. “John C. Taylor” [4 b/w prints]
11. Manuscript Correspondence, 1938-1939
12. Manuscript Correspondence, 1953-1954
13. Manuscript Correspondence, 1963-1964
14. “Materials for History of Extension Work” [25 b/w prints]
15. “Montana’s Contribution to the New Deal Farm Policies; Roy E. Huffman”
16. “Notes”
17. “On State Request – Draft”
18. “Questionnaires – A-L”
19. “Questionnaires – M-Z” [5 b/w prints]


Box 5
1. “Starting an Experiment Station in the West – Frederic B. Linfield”
2. “Wallace Murdock”
3. “4-H Work Histories” [1 b/w print]
4. “1934 Cattle Purchase, Power River County & Custer County – George W. Gustafson & Herschell D. Hurd”

Contents | Special Collections

Series 5: Plains Indian Center

This series documents Cushman’s efforts to establish a tribute to colleague Verne Dusenberry in the form of a Plains Indian Center at Montana State University. The correspondence, proposal, and research materials document her interest in improving the education and training of Native Americans through the creation of the Indian Center.

Box 5 (Cont.)
5. Indian Center; Correspondence, 1966-1967
6. Indian Center; Correspondence, 1968-1969
7. Indian Center; Correspondence, 1970-1972
8. Indian Center; Correspondence, 1973
9. Indian Center; Correspondence, 1974
10. Indian Center; Correspondence, 1975-1979
11. Indian Center; “Miscellaneous Materials”
12. “Native American Studies Center; Proposal, 1974”
13. “Program Research”

Contents | Special Collections

Series 6: Poultry Records

This series contains three card files pertaining to Cushman’s work on poultry; the arrangement of these files preserves the creator’s original organization. Organized by county, the first card file documents Cushman’s visits around the state. The second card file (arranged by owner) and third card file (arranged by breed) pertain to poultry flocks in Montana. This series also includes Cushman’s daily reports (a calendar record of activities), her memo book (a hodgepodge of notes relating to poultry, 4H, and miscellaneous facts), and her notebook (collection of daily reports from 1953-1954, addresses, lists, and reference material on poultry housing, diseases, production, feed, etc.)

Box 5 (Cont.)
14. “Daily reports,” 1928-1939
15. “Daily reports,” 1940-1949
16. “Daily reports,” 1952


Box 6
1. Card File – County Visits
2. Card File – Flock Records, ca. 1933-1945 [alphabetical by owner]
3. Card File – Poultry Flock [by breed]


Box 7
1. Memo Book
2. Notebook

Contents | Special Collections

Series 7: Poultry Photographs

This series contains images relating to Cushman’s poultry work. Photographs provide images of individual poultry, flocks of poultry, poultry structures, and testing of poultry. The photographs have been sequentially numbered and identified with the pound sign (#).

Box 7 (Cont.)
3. #1-21
#1–6, Poultry – Individual
#7–11, Poultry – Flock
#12–17, Poultry Structures
#18–21, Poultry Testing

Contents | Special Collections

Updated: 04/22/2011